As one of the four skills reading plays an important role in enhancing a student’s English ability. More importantly reading functions as a tool to access information to the worldwide web. Reading widely is a highly effective means of extending our command of language so it has an important place in classrooms where language learning is central purpose Nutall 2000.
Reading is used as an evaluation tool. However, students regard it as a difficult skill. Dechant 1977 states that reading is not an easy skill to be mastered. It is a complex process that requires the skill of the reader. Many students find difficulties when they read especially when they read the text and have to answer the questions. Based on School-Based Curriculum Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan of Junior High School the standard competency is English student is expected to master four language skills namely listening, speaking, reading and writing and also to have communicative competence in using it.
Besides that, the basic competence of reading skill which is mentioned in School-Based Curriculum of Junior High School for the eighth-grade students is to comprehend the meaning of written functional text and a short essay. in the forms of descriptive and recount text to interact in the daily life context. In addition, the achievement indicator that students must gain is being competent in the subheading skill including understanding main idea specific information word meaning and textual reference of the text.
To improve the understanding of learning reading there are some techniques that can be mastered by students. According to Prastiti 2006 20 Based on the purpose or intent reading is divided into several types including intensive reading, reading techniques, a quick reading, critical reading, and beautiful reading Skimming is a reading technique by exploring or sweeping read quickly to understand or find the things that matter. Students using this technique no longer read word for word sentence by sentence but paragraph by paragraph read quickly. Things to look for are the main or important things namely the basic ideas.
The main idea is not always at the beginning of the paragraph but also in the middle at the end or at the beginning and at the end, To look for the basic ideas students are not allowed to waste time. While scanning is a quick glance technique but careful with the intention of finding and obtaining certain information or special facts from a reading. In its use students immediately seek information certain desired without paying attention or reading other parts in the unreachable reading. Once the search is found students read meticulously to obtain or understand the information or facts sought Haryadi 2006 191. One of the most essential reading skills is scanning for specific information.
By training students to scan the page to look for keywords they learn to group-specific letters together and quickly identify words thus improving their fluency over time. Scanning is also a critical test-taking skill that allows students to read questions carefully and know how to look back in the text quickly to find the answer.
The material scanning is typically arranged in the following ways alphabetically, chronologically, non alphabetically, numbers, a date, by category or textually. Alphabetical information is arranged in order from A to Z while chronological information is arranged in time or numerical order. Information can be also be arranged in non-alphabetical order such as a television listing or by category listings of like items such as an auto parts catalog. Sometimes information is located within the written paragraphs of text, also known as a textual sense as in an encyclopedia entry. Fast reading ability. Scanning required students to make things easier to understand the contents of the reading. By reading quickly students can find the content readings quickly too. Speed reading should be offset by speed understanding the contents of reading.
Students who have the ability to read fast but the speed of understanding less will certainly affect effectiveness read it. Student reading speed is highly dependent on interest in reading to be understood. Student motivation to read still less student’s ability to understand discourse is very low. Students are still less able to determine global information selective information and detailed information contained in the discourse and interpret the vocabulary in the sentence despite having experienced the learning process by using the maximum time allocation.
From the problems that have been investigated by the previous study, the researcher tried to apply scanning techniques in reading as a technique for Junior High School students. This technique helps students locate information quickly. The reader must know how information is arranged in reading and how a text is organized as in Ghani’s study 1993 1 that scanning is a type of reading that involves finding a particular piece of information located in materials that are otherwise of no interest to the reader. Based on the student’s problems the writer conducted.