Introduction:

In today’s globalised world where political decisions are taken and changed according to the popular requirement, or sometimes, in Democracies, according to the popular appeal, companies have to work under enormous pressure and caution. Saudi Arabia does not function as an unquestionable monarchy any more and politically, the Royal House is susceptible to the major upheavals created by terrorism in the Gulf Countries. They face uncertainties, and they also are concerned with taking care of their citizens’ present and future opportunities. Monarchy and its representative Government have to function under these constraints and naturally the effect is felt mainly by the private sector, which, in any society, is the highly unprotected segment.

Management decisions are gaining extraordinary and unprecedented importance in the present changed business situation. Governments and business houses have to think beyond the territories while making a decision. They can make an impact all over the world, and the prevailing world business trend could make immediate impact on them. Management theories have evolved and have been applied mainly to change management and control management

1. System approach is another, perhaps highly effective way to apply on a company that is targeting a certain achievement

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2.System theory is considered to be the science in management3 and targets the following systems as applied to Alamarai:

1. Alamarai is a flourishing company, but a system and every work in the company is done as clockwork, without any change at all in the daily routine. It has its hierarchies, branches, transport system, distribution system and works like a well-oiled machine, noiselessly.

2. It has its own performance criteria and system objectives. Its performance criteria is mainly running its huge farm, stocked with yielding cows, cooling and pasteurising this milk, make connected milk products and supply them to the decided outlets along with other food products. Alamarai had been one company who had been performing flawlessly, even though a cooling project in Saudi Arabia is not an easy matter.

3. Alamarai is ruled by its environments, political, social, cultural and religious. It is also ruled by the economic environment of the present day world. These signals, the company is unable to ignore any more.

4. It has its own humanistic and psychosocial subsystems, but till recently controlling the humanistic conditions as they are mainly from foreign countries and hence, were mainly biddable, it had found comfortable, compared to the present psychosocial subsystem, that had been brought into the company through Saudisation.

5. Alamarai’s aim had been integrating these subsystems with the whole wider society. The psychosocial subsystems are not only originated from the prevailing society, but also have to be improved and bettered in the same society and Alamarai is trying to integrate them.

It increases options, reduces errors during achievement and the achievement could be anything. It need not be only the highly market victory. It could be connected socially, politically and culturally to the company, for which company is either forced or willingly inspired to work for.

System approach is one of the decision support systems, that had been in vogue for sometime and had been found unquestionably effective by many organisations and has amply proved its efficiency, mainly because it works along with its subsystems, and hence, more scope for checking, correcting, evolving and finalising.

a) Company overview:

Almarai (Green Pastures), a very famous company of Saudi Arabia, a household name in diary products was established in 1976, under the direction of the Prince. It is based in Saudi capital Riyadh, with its operations spread not only in Saudi Arabia, but also through the Arabian Peninsula, covering almost all the Gulf countries. It is a pioneer in agricultural, diary processing and food distribution field. It is a well known entity with a large workforce and has the distinction of being the largest dairy food company in the Middle East, with 45,000 livestock, and 40% market share of fresh dairy markets in the GCC. It owns a processing capacity of 1.4 million litres of milk per day, in an astonishing 45,000 square metre area, with its activities varying from dairy and arable farming, marketing, distribution of food productions, which, considering the appalling heat of the Middle East, is no mean task. Its devoted and highly dedicated work force, along with the direction and leadership provided by the farsighted Prince has achieved this exalted goal unfalteringly.

b) organisation structure :

The hierarchy of the company is Board of Directors, CEO, General manager of all divisions, General manager of each division, Line Manager, Department Manager, Team Manager, Supervisor, Line Leaders, Operators and workers. Company never faced the teething problems or any obstruction in growth due to wrong management decision, as can be seen from the steadily expanding growth of the company into an impressive empire.

c) Management practise at the company:

Each year new level of perfection had been achieved by the Company and its workers. Company continues to expand into neighbouring gulf countries thanks to its high visibility and connection with the Royal House of Saudi. But it is unfair to presume that company became a colossus only due to its connection with the Prince. It always took the right decision, tried hard to lead its workers in the right path, and took ethical advantage of every economic and social situation around Saudi Arabia. Today, it operates a fleet of 500 chilled sales vans across 28 sales depots through the GCC. The challenges faced by the workforce on daily basis are astonishing; but they have always overcome them and succeeded.

Its 4,000 staff represents 30 different countries. The entire work force is divided into farming, processing, marketing, personnel and administration, financial and support work. Company has gone through reconstructing and reinvesting phase. It had always recognised and appreciated the long-term strategic competitive advantages. While doing so, it undertook a major investment programme of 1,100 million between 1993 and 1997. Though not appreciated initially this investment proved to be one of the best decisions. It has fresh processing plants and large dairy farms with modern technology. Its position had been strong and growth steady. In 1999, it initiated a substantial fresh milk and laban price promotion that proved to be extremely beneficial and popular.

d) Problem description:

Company either willingly, or forced by political environment, went for Saudisation, which means 50% of the total workforce have to be from Saudi Arabia. There are seven million foreigners working in Saudi Arabia, but the country is finding it almost impossible to provide employment to 300,000 unemployed Saudi workforce. Reasons had been many like unimpressive educational system existing in the country, a traditionally wrong attitude towards work, and the easy availability of foreign workers who are better-qualified and more responsive to work. Even though education up to the University had been free throughout and people have access to free healthcare, Saudi had been unable to reap up dedicated and motivated subject leaders from the universities. Government had also been steadily privatising the all the services to lessen the burden of SR660 billion public debts. The days of resting on the invincibly rich image of Saudi Arabia are numbered and the Government knows it. They have to be careful in their internal and external polities and decisions, so that their people could get the maximum benefits out of all situations.

Government wants the business houses to employ more Saudis. And have set a target of 5% a year for the workforce of every company with more than 100 workers. Companies, though complied initially, had been unable to do so for longer time with the same gusto. Reasons were many and daunting and all business houses showed similar reactions. Saudis were expensive, not trained properly, would not get motivated even if trained, had bad work standards and ethics, abandoned jobs at the drop of the hat even after imparting expensive and extensive training. Simultaneously, foreigners were cheaper, devoted, never complained about unsocial hours, were strictly covered by iqama sponsorship scheme and did not relinquish work often. Business houses showed their reluctance to Saudization and as a result, government had to announce all job categories open to only to Saudis resulting in cancellation of work visas to professionals like guards, salesmen and accountants to name a few badly needed categories.

Almarai had been unable to reach the required 50% and the current level of 30% is punishable. With very high and tense competition by business houses in and out of Saudi Arabia, company has to watch out its resources and cannot pay high salaries to Saudis, which they expect. Training programmes are another disaster as foreigners do not train Saudis properly for fear of losing their own jobs. Reluctance to learn from the training programme on the part of Saudi workers is another story. Saudis do not know English at manual level, are unreliable, lethargic and ill educated. They want to work lesser hours and days, with as little responsibility as possible, and absentees were more than the working force and were absolutely undevoted to the mother companies. They were openly reluctant to accept the leadership of non-Saudis and were adamant in their decisions not to do certain jobs, which they regarded as inferior to their culture. In the end, the whole dismal scenario boiled down to cultural background, lack of education, lack of business sense and necessity and social barriers and banners.

e) Problem influence with the company operation and future goals:
Not complying with the Saudization, gave bad public image and disreputation to the hitherto highly regarded company. It has become difficult to market the products resulting financial loss for the first time in its history and this would lead not only to loss of market but also to loss of investment and company is staring at the difficult road ahead.

2) Major and Minor Metaphor:
As the major metaphor, I have chosen the tough implementation of Saudisation without harming the company’s future in any way6. As this is the most important factor, which would restore the company’s reputation and thus, its position as the unquestioned business leader, I feel that this is the only goal that company should go for with all its might and tactics. For example, company cannot fight with the Government and continue employing foreigners, as many companies have tried to do slyly and have failed miserably. This company is headed by the Prince and cannot be prone to illegal practices. It has to prevent its ethical scales from sliding down.

Company as part of the highly informed circle, cannot ignore that Saudi population is increasing and oil revenue is decreasing, whereas unemployment is growing. Every Government of the world is trying to take care of its own people in the highly volatile present situation. Most of the Muslim countries are conservative and work under a threatened atmosphere that foreigners might one day take over their country, even though such possibilities are remote. We notice that most of them to not award citizenships to foreigners fearing the adverse effect on their culture. They are awfully sensitive to the Muslim population count. A large foreign workforce existing in Saudi Arabia, monopolising all business vantage points might look like a threatening factor. As Government is implementing Saudisation aggressively, company does not have any other option other than falling into line.

I am choosing culture as the minor metaphor, because it is connected with Saudisation and also is connected with the work pattern of Saudi workers. It is also connected with the government decision to have less foreign workers and more of their own people. Culture has to be manipulated in such a way that Saudi worker would look the part, less aggressive and volatile and more responsible in the model of a worker from industrialised nation. Saudi Arabia is going through a phase, where it is neither a feudal community, nor a technologically advanced one. It is uneasy at the thought of leaving behind its aggressively religious nature, as the protector of two Holy Islam Shrines. People are reluctant to come of many culturally dictated rules and regulations. But they have to adopt a middle path, if they have to change into a responsible, dedicated and motivated work force. Culture has to be analysed from social and political and in the present case, religious background.

Saudisation and culture are not unrelated, but perfected connected to one another as they heavily depend on each other for the outcome. It is impossible to a large extent, keeping the ocmpany’s future in view, to separate them totally. They are intertwined and interconnected in more ways than one and it is not possible to attain the end results without clubbing them together.

Company comes under Complex Pluralist category, as usual with the supply chain managements, because supply chains are ‘implementations of some kinds of worldviews’ that contain all activities starting from production, production flow, cash flow reaching the end users and back and they imbibe management of information, procurement, production, order, inventory, warehouse and customer service through purposeful human activities and hence, SSM through TSI is selected to construct their conceptual models.

3) Analysis:

Total Systems Intervention (TSI) has to be applied on Almaarai to face this acute problem without marring the future of the company in any way. It is highly sensitive to the limitations of other systems and provides maximum relief and options under the prevailing circumstances. It is vigilant and careful, and is aware of the difficulties and constraints under which the principal actor, the company here, is functioning. TSI can analyse and render recommendations for implementation by the company, which should be helpful in giving future direction for the company. TSI also can provide future guidance to the management in regular problem solving. TSI would also take the cultural constraints, region limitations and mental blocks into consideration. This would lead to the picking up of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) as the dominant methodology of the actual implementation. Using the logic and principles of TSI, problem would be presented and highlighted the target areas that need immediate solutions and at the analysis state, again TSI will be engaged using SSM dominant methodology to be tempered by viable system diagnosis as the supporting methodology. Soft System Methodology, developed by Peter Checkland, is an attempt to apply systems engineering principles to business problems, with subsystems, is mainly applied when people who are working together to achieve something, and targeting a certain objective7.

a) Problem expression:
In SSM, problem expression is encouraged to be done with rigorous thinking and clear comprehension. The problem of incapability of Saudisation without putting the company into jeopardy has to be clarified in different ways, taking the political economic, social and religious impacts and circumstances into proper consideration. Each fact has to be weighed upon and each independent factor has to be valued. Anything and everything that is connected with the present problem should be given a thorough thought and vigorous consideration.

b) CATOWE analysis of stockholders:
Checkland uses mnemonic CATWOE to describe human activity and its present situation. It is performed by Actors to clients who would be benefited by its application. The activity is ultimately controlled or paid off by owners and this happens only in a certain environment. CATWOE analysis is recommended as the initial step and should be performed after drawing conclusions on who is definitely ‘important’ in the given stage. This factor becomes a natural determinant of many other connected factors and without it being clear, the rest of the analysis would not be very useful. Board of the Directors, headed by the Prince should be important under the circumstances, even though the ordinary decisions would be taken by managers, and then General Managers of each Unit, ending with the General Manager of all divisions.

c) Draw the rich picture of the problem:
Checkland calls his systems, graphs and diagrams as Rich Pictures. He insists on finding out more about the existing organisations and the entire system analysis should depend upon the original rich pictures. He also wants to know the climate of the organisation, like lethargic, energetic, farsighted etc. Here, we can safely deduce that the company had been unusually energetic, farsighted and buoyant. It made a great impact on the Saudis and in the international market. It never hesitated nor stumbled in its march towards excellence. The rich picture would show constraints, but never unwillingness. Problems facing the company are not insurmountable, but mere hindrances.

d) Root definition of the problem: (can be more than one)
Root definition is a particular human activity on which the company spends a lot of time. This is usually concerned with the internal use or consumption. It should be able to describe the real activity the ‘minimum people can agree upon’. There will be arguments, discussions and people would be aware on which they are agreeing and what part of it is being discarded.
In this context we can say the Root Definition for the company is “We will definitely usher in Saudisation into Almarai” and on this everybody will agree. Rest of the problems and hindrances are left out for the present and will be tackled later. On this, there are few disagreements, because every one knows that this the most minimum requirement under the circumstances.

e) Conceptual model:
This is a human activity model and connects with the Root definition8. There should be at least one conceptual model connected operation to each root definition. To perform this, there should be a measure of performance.
Here the mission is Saudisation. Measure of performance is 30% aimed at 100%. Decision making process is implementing against all odds and slowly building up with a yearly target without harming any of the company’s resources. Components interacting with each other, like management, its decisions, the workers, human activities, training, behavioural coaching, efficiency inspiring and they interact with each other, as part of the much wider system of the company. Human activity system is bounded by the wider system and it is connected with the decision-making and enforcement area from where every activity could be encouraged or discouraged. Monitoring this operational system consists of defining the measure of performance, monitoring and take complete action decision wherever necessary.

1) efficacy:
Efficacy is the self-doubting, self-interrogation and self-convincing of the main player. Efficacy has to be satisfied throughout the application and unless the management and the people responsible to apply the tool are convinced that the system does work and continues to do so, Almaarai would not be on the right path. Company would be interrogating its own actions at every stage, to reassure itself the usefulness of the system it has adopted.

2) Effectiveness:
Effectiveness of the system shows the level of work completed compared to the consumed resources. Almarai has to keep checking and comparing both throughout the operation and this would convince the leadership of the company that the resources are well spent, and not squandered. It would also assure them that the targets are being achieved in the same proportion in which the resources are spent.

3) Ethical factor:
In all societies ethics plays a major role, and more so, in a traditional society like that of Saudi Arabia. Without an ethical approach, precious little could be achieved by Almaarai in its march towards overcoming the problem. Assessing frequently how ethically effective and assurance inspiring the whole operation is highly advantageous.

On the whole recommendations of the analyst would be the following:

1. Alamarai has to project a better image of itself through Saudisation.
2. It has to show more maturity in dealing with the conflict areas.
3. Its Human Resources Management should be revolutionalised and reformed to meet the new challenges.
4. Structure of the organisation might need an overhaul to excite better guidance.
5. Lack of commitment among the employees should be tacked on a priority basis.
6. An immediate review of company’s external policy is necessary.
7. Communication system throughout the organisation is inadequate and should be attended to.
8. Lack of goals and lack of control should be eradicated.
9. Even though all distribution and marketing is done efficiently, there is a lack of knowledge about the present market conditions, which should be attended to.
10. There is an immediate need of extensive involvement by the Board of Directors, including the Prince.

QUESTION 2

SAUDISATION

Father Brown laid down his cigar and said carefully: “It isn’t that they can’t see the solution. It is that they can’t see the problem,” (G.K. Chesterton, 1929). The problem of Alamarai will be solved by using the logic of TSI, by introducing specific problems and connected solutions9. TSI methodology is sensitive to difficulties and limitations can employ a host of metaphors10 and works through its three phases of creativity, choice and implementation. Alamarai and its analyst will think about the present problem creatively beyond the obvious solutions and limitations.

They have to make their choices out of the solutions formed now by creative thinking. Alamarai, which would be guided by its analyst, would be implementing the recommendations proposed after the analysis and here TSI process will be completed. TSI allows us to recognise the strength and weaknesses of the organisation. It thrives on implementing complimentarism through identifying strengths and weaknesses, sociological awareness and human wellbeing and emancipation, while the system metaphors will probe into the problem in the most creative way possible. TSI will cover problem areas like lack of training, lack of information, lack of knowledge about outside world economics, lack of knowledge about dwindling oil prices and competition, and it would tackle the ignorance of workers coming through Saudisation who ask for more salary and less work in a creatively constructive and informative way. It would also tackle the staff desertion logically.

Soft System Methodology will be introduced as a tool as the supporting methodology. Soft System Methodology takes care of unstructured problems through a holistic approach. It recognises that systems are available in the human context and by exploring and applying them into a cultural analysis, solutions could be found.

It is used after a tremendous amount of research, and careful choices. Checkland produced the following seven famous stages in 1975:

1. The problem situation unstructured.
2. The problem situation structured
3. Root definitions of relevant systems
4. Conceptual models
5. Comparison of stage 4 and stage 2.
6. Identify feasible and desirable changes
7. Action to improve the problem situation.
In 1988, he presented the new version and this analysis is being done using the same, and in this version, it becomes a continuous process of interactive learning:

1. Problem situation unstructured:

At this stage it is imperative to gain as much information as possible about the problem11. All available information about Saudisation has to be gathered like the need of Saudisation for the country, steps taken by Saudi government to implement this programme, hurdles faced by the government, benefits of such a programme, long run advantages to the Saudi society, like getting education, trained and employed, being part of the modern work force of the country, and being the financial contributor in the society. It is also necessary to find out the details about the programme and how it is going to hit private sector, especially Alamarai. A general description of the entire programme is necessary as the groundwork for the entire analysis. All available information about Saudisation and Almarai both are needed. Information about the management and day today working in Alamarai too is necessary.

2. Problem situation structured:

This stage is important to structure the entire information collected about Saudisation and Alamarai and put it down in a very constructive way. This stage is absolutely necessary for starting of the analysis. The first Analysis is the Intervention Analysis and this is done by considering Alamarai’s hopes and aspirations, and what exactly it would like to achieve in the long run. Second role is of the problem solver, with the current available resources. The availability of resources should be judged along with the constraints faced by Alamarai and the system analyser should immediately don the role of a problem owner. Defining the client who causes intervention, defining the ‘would be problem solver (here analysers), would be problem solver (analyser again), and then for each problem identifying an interested problem owner will be done at this phase. This is to find out the teacher- student relationships within the company. The system analyser should find the individual and the position and this positional performance is measured, with the connected values. In Alamarai, we can take the General Managers of divisions for this role.

Next analysis is political analysis, where the analyser has to find out the peculiarities of Saudi government and at the same time, has to see the strangeness of Saudi culture and its expected implementation in all business houses and business decisions. In addition to this, analyser needs information about the political atmosphere prevailing in Alamarai.

Rich Picture:

This is the part of the above stage. Plans, graphs and diagrams produced in favour of the analysis during different stages become the Rich Picture of the entire Soft System Methodology. It need not be a breathtakingly beautiful painting or a diagram with right perspectives. But it should be able to indicate the activities and plans that have been executed and about to be executed as part of the analysis. This works under the principle that diagrams and graphs stay in the mind and function psychologically better, than explanations through mere words.

Various problems and plan indicators are drawn in rather elementary way so that they could fit into the wider picture of analysis and methodology. For collecting information about the various facts, analyst can use many methods like interviews, workshops, discussions and work observations. It has to identify the task performed/ahead, tools employed, system and people interaction, descriptions, making drawings, and structural layouts, collecting tools of information and familiarising with them and creating participant observation and using video recordings.

Questionnaires, audio recordings and informal meetings too would help. Alamarai being a huge, functioning organisation, it will be very easy to collect all the information and people in the Gulf countries, unlike in Western countries, are good conversationalists and usually very forthcoming with relevant information. An unnecessary sense of secrecy does not plague these cultures, at least not yet.
Rich Pictures show pictures and diagrams without rules, but with distinguishing features like people involved, their reasons, purposes and hesitations, with the surrounding details and organisational boundaries, with pointers of agreement and conflict and these pictures could be comical, helpless, unfriendly, illogical and to some extent, blind.

3. Naming the relevant systems:

This phase is mainly about constructing and reconstructing the root definitions and applying them to different systems and vice versa. There are two kinds of root definitions: Primary Root definitions and Issue based Root Definitions. Primary root definitions are concerned with the daily activities of the client and in this context, it is the daily functioning of Alamarai like its dairy functions, pasteurising, cooling, distributing of dairy and food products and how efficient and devoted the workers are to this task. Issue based Root definition is the one off incident like Saudisation.

Root definitions are another way of visualising the system, with its logical working modes. It also explains why the particular system is preferred above others. It gives a general framework of the entire functioning of the system and how it connects with the transformation process12.

The root definition is one way of describing what is the system, how the system will work, and why we need this system. We should not confuse the how here with the how of implementation, the how in the root definitions gives a general frame work of how we are going to do this but it is not how that defines certain technology and certain steps to be taken. A root definition is expressed as a transformation process that takes some entity as input, changes or transforms that entity, and produces a new form of the entity as output. The transformation process here is a key word of SSM, it usually describes the action of transformation required to transform an input to an output.

CATWOE Analysis too comes as a part of the above in which RD plans and functions are created in accordance with the real world’s practical situation. Analyst pits the CATWOE and Root Definitions against each other to get a clear picture of the situation. The situation at this points present interesting pictures. For example: Saudi Government wants Saudis to work efficiently and regularly. But the workers want to go back to their non-working days of wealth and security and no responsibility. Still they have to work because they cannot get the earlier situation, and this means the Government wants them to do more work, whereas they are doing less work, while thinking all the time longingly of those days of no work.

It stands for Customer, Actors, Transformation, Weltanschauung (what view of the world makes this definition meaningful?), owner and environment. For Alamarai, customers are the general public and users, Actors are operators and system administrators, Transformation is Saudisation, Weltanschuauung is the communication system that mans the distribution system to end users, Owner is the Corporation and Board of Directors, and Environment is the cultural, social, political and economic constraints for and against Saudisation.

4. Building the Conceptual model:
Considered to be the core of SSM Methodology, it works with human activity models and related concepts. It needs at least one model for each RD. This hinges on taking a particular RD, in this case, Saudisation, and think, plan, evolve and put together different ways of implementing it. Saudisation has to be done in Alamarai and this is the basis of this study and analysis. Analyst has to think various means and ends of achieving it, plan them, group them together, scatter them and regroup them, by Formal System Thinking, Monitoring the system, or by making a table of conceptual explanations. (Table: Activity – depends on (another connected activity) – explanation (either explanation of the activity, or reason and explanation of failure to achieve this particular activity).

5. Comparison:
Here it is necessary to compare the structured model of Phase 2 with the Conceptual model of stage 4 and draw judgements and conclusions. Here two models exist, one with pure problems and another with possible explanations and solutions for those problems. Comparison with these two stages should provide answers to the following questions:
a) Does the Saudisation occur in the real world? Is it necessary?
b) In what way these structures are going to implement or achieve it?
c) How to make it really occur? Will the dream situation persist?
So, it gives way to a table: activity – exists or not – how is it done – assessment – how is it judged – notes.

Or the comparison can be done between Conceptual model action and the Real World.

6. Definition of desirable and feasible changes:

Here using several criteria is important against the main problem. This could include reason for change, issue of change, long or short-term change, nature of change, ways and means to bring the change into existence, possible long-term effects due to change etc. The need of Saudisation, issue of Saudisation and the difficulties, and the long term change nature of it, and how in the business world, it is going to change the whole perspective, and the changes to be done to implement this change and as the long term effects, Saudisation would bring a long period of inefficiency and business loss to Alamarai, which could be in a longer run, might pick up by Saudis getting used to the modern culture, and this again, is a question left to the future.

Questions like why does the existing system needs the change too arise at this stage. And the answer would be the globalisation, factors influencing economic changes in Saudi Arabia, Government decision to tackle the issue and the reaction of the private sector to such aggression. It could include political feasibility, cost feasibility and social/ religious feasibilities too. As part of political feasibility Alamarai would not face any problems from the political circle, but definitely cost feasibility may not be very pleasant to the company already caught in the whirlpool of outside competition. Socially Alamarai would find its past reputation and religiously it would present an all-Saudi face.

7. Recommended Action:

This is the stage where final recommendations and suggestions are forwarded to the management of Alamarai13. Alamarai is today not just a part of Saudi Arabia, but also a part of Gulf countries and more than that, it is a part of the flourishing international business community, one of its prestigious members. So the measures recommended should be beneficial both to the company and to Saudi Arabia.

Through the Soft System Management, Alamarai could go through many options and alternatives and some of them could be listed as below:
1. Alamarai need not go through an instant Saudisation, but could request the government for some time to do so, and this would mean that it can implement the process step by step slowly absorbing the impact of doing so. This would not affect the company much.
2. There is absolutely no cleverness in losing all the well trained and highly devoted foreign staff. And again, permission could be taken to ease them out over the years and the company would be benefited by their devotion and sophisticated ways of working.
3. Older foreign employees could be employed on contract (even retired employees) to train the Saudis properly and for doing the important work of properly training them; these foreigners could be rewarded adequately.
4. Alamarai can request the government to educate and train the younger generation in a better way so that they could be ready to work in business houses.
5. Saudi workers could be given proper guidance during their training, especially the importance of devotion towards company, which is a part of nation building.
6. It is necessary to go through negotiations with other companies and convince them not to employ the staff of another company at least for a certain period, say four years.
7. It could be clever to keep some of the foreign employees with impressive job titles as consultants and advisers.
8. It is necessary to bring about a cultural change in the outlook for Saudi workers, and discuss their cultural and religious inhibitions openly and this might help to a large extent.
9. Company also has to find out and plan in advance the necessity of loosening some cultural grips so that workers could be of free mind.
10. Ways and means of how the company could cushion the losses that might happen due to Saudisation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

  1. 1. Peter Checkland and Jim Scholes, Soft Systems Methodology in Action, (Chechester: John Wiley & Sons), 1990.
    2. Mike Robson, Problem-solving in Groups, 3rd edn., (Hampshire: Gower), 2002.
    3. David A. Whetten, Kim Cameron, Mike Woods, Effective Problem solving, (Hammersmith: Harper Collins Publishers), 1996.
    4. Tony Proctor, Creative Problem Solving for Managers, (London: Routledge), 1999.
    5. Michael Pidd, Tools for Thinking, (Chichester: Wiley), 2003.
    6. Colin Eden, Sue Jones, David Sims, Messing About in Problems, (Oxford: Pergamon Press), 1983.

ONLINE SOURCES:

  1. 1. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/417/417lect06.htm
    2. http://www.savingsbydesign.com/system.htm
    3. http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/SYSAPPR.html
    4. http://www-staff.it.uts.edu.au/~jim/bpt/ssm.html
    5. http://sern.ucalgary.ca/~bowen/613/report/
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