CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION
It is impossible for any organisation to success and to survive without the motivation, commitment and efforts from its members. In the past few years there are many theories that have been analyzed and developed. Those theories can sustain behaviour. Also they can have an impact on the way employees are treated by their manager (Bate et al., 2005, p. 36). In a way we can say that the commitment, dedication and efforts of members can build a successful organisation.
On the same note in order to get all those factors from the employees, it is required that the organisation should have quality leadership. Leadership should be such that motivates its members wanting to come and perform their task rather than seeking excuses for not coming to work. Today’s uncertain and turbulent business environment that has been brought about by the economic crisis is making it even more and more difficult for the employers to find ways to gain the full potential from their employees(Sheddy,2009). Thus, to be able to understand what are the factors that motivate employees to work is becoming a critical issue for the society and businesses. Leadership development programs are an essential element of school reform that has gained the attention of many educators and researchers (Can 2009).Furthermore, intrinsic motivation was predicted by perceptions of the transformational leader, (Charbonneau et al.2001). On the same edge, the study is focusing on teacher’s motivation, job satisfaction and principals’ leadership styles Bono and Judge (2003). The rich literature concerning teaching styles and students’ motivations is surprising when comparing with school principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ motivation, (Assor et al., 2002, 2005; Roth et al., 2007; Roth and Bibi, 2010, p.16).
1.2 Statement of the problem
The level of job satisfaction, effective leadership and motivation of educators has not been established properly as it should have been. Due to the dropping grades and poor performance of students have given a rise to this research to be conducted which its main focus will be the job satisfaction, motivation and the level of leadership of educators. The dissatisfaction of a teacher involves his lack of performance. Several factors can cause job satisfaction according to Can (2009), it includes: difficult to accomplish standards, Low salaries, lack of parental support, overcrowded classrooms, and the working condition can directly affect the level of an educator’s satisfaction.
But there is a lack of information about the impact of teachers’ perceptions of principals’ leadership behaviours on teacher motivation (Gordon & Patterson, 2006, p.76). Moreover, as high quality education is in demand, more changes have been made and it has resulted in a more complicated school system and more responsibilities are on the teacher’s shoulders. The style of leadership that principal uses not only affect the performance of educators but also have a positive impact on student’s achievements, (Marks & Printy, 2006,p.71).
Principal’s leadership style plays a vital role in involving teachers in development programs, (Elenkov & Manev, 2005; Richards, 2007, p.82). Research has shown that teacher’s dissatisfaction influences student’s achievement, (Saint, 2007). Furthermore, educators’ relationship with school principal is essential. It is said that in order to obtain job satisfaction it is important to have a good leadership style and to be motivated. The ability to influence people to achieve a goal is the most important factor for an organisation to be successful (Killan 2005, p.12).
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The main aim of this research is the investigation of motivation, job satisfaction and the level of leadership style of educators in Mauritius. The objectives are as follows:
- ‘ Establishing the role of leadership in job satisfaction and staff motivation.
- ‘ Establishing the overall level of motivation among educators in Mauritius.
- ‘ Different roles played by different leadership styles in motivating the educators.
- ‘ Factors contributing to the current level of motivation of educators in Mauritius.
1.4 Research Questions
It is said that in order to obtain job satisfaction it is important to have a good leadership style and to be motivated. The ability to influence people to achieve a goal is the most important factor for an organisation to be successful (Killan 2005, p.12). Questions that arise in this particular research are as such:
- ‘ What is the role of leadership?
- ‘ In motivating educators in Mauritius, what is the role of different leadership styles?
- ‘ What are the factors that contribute positively and negatively to the level of motivation of educators in the country?
- ‘ What is the relationship between leadership, motivation and job satisfaction?
1.5 Background of study
Since the last ten years, establishments in Mauritius have brought many changes like the introduction of Curriculum, the redeployment and layoff of teachers, due to severance packages there is loss of skills and also the retrenchment of the short term teachers which is in turn resulting in uncertainty, anxiety and insecurity among educators. Moreover, those factors like the insecurity, uncertainty which is among educators had started to have a negative impact on their job satisfaction (Nkonka, 2005, p.1).
There are many factors that influence the level of motivation and leadership for educators. There is the Herzberg’s two factor theory stating that certain factors cause satisfaction while others cause dissatisfaction. The satisfiers are: ‘recognition, achievement, responsibility, promotion, growth and the work itself’. On the contrary lies the dissatisfies which involve: ‘ pay and benefits, company policy and administration, physical environment, status, job security, supervision, salary, working condition, personal life, interpersonal with peers’, (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2006,p.145).
Even though some studies have been done on the relationship between principals’ leadership skills and teachers’ job satisfaction (Bolger, 2007; Verdugo, Greenberg, Henderson, Uribe, Jr., & Schneider, 2008), with administrative governance of some school principals, many of the high school teachers were still not satisfied.
When both educators and principals share leadership responsibilities only then effective leadership practices in establishments take place, (Marks & Printy, 2006). An effective leadership approach can be achieved by through a positive interaction between educators and principals. Furthermore, it is important to examine the leadership effectiveness from the perspective of educators and tall the factors mentioned in boosting the level of motivation and job satisfaction will be further analyzed.
CHAPTER 2-LITERATURE REVIEW
As organisations are engaged in a competitive environment, hence there is a need for the right kind of leadership to survive. In order to maintain a high performance, respond to changes, innovate and address challenges creatively, organisations must have effective leaders, (Vardiman et al., 2006, p.36). Furthermore, The importance of leadership and motivation is described as: ‘the glue that holds an organisation together and the help it to progress’, (Hinricks 2007, p.37).
The definitions of leadership vary as there are many authors that have deduced their own way of expression this theory. Leadership is described as ‘the ability to enlist, mobilize, and motivate others to apply their abilities and resources to a given cause’, (AERA, May4, 2010).Another definition is ‘leadership in terms of individual traits, leader behaviour, interaction patterns, role relationships, follower perceptions, in’uence over followers, in’uence on task goals, and in’uence on organizational culture, (Alas et al. 2007,p.44).
2.2.1 Leadership Styles
No style of leadership is perfect in all situations, (Le Roux et al. 2008, p.129). For an effective school management, the school manager may use one or more styles of leadership or a combination of them depending on the situation. Managers who adopt an employee-oriented style try to motivate employees rather than controlling them. They have a friendly relationship with the subordinates and also allowing them to participate in decision making
188.8.131.52 Autocratic Leadership
Autocratic leader is the type, who uses a dominating, strict discipline, makes all the decisions by himself, no delegation is done, and the subordinates have no freedom to give their opinions, and has a one way communication. This style is adopted when the subordinates are lazy, lack the competency and shows no interest in their work. In the academic establishment, the principal is seen to give orders.
The autocratic style is needed where there is a need to control, (Torrington et al. 2005, p.22). Teachers like to feel part and parcel in the establishment, they want to feel valued when looking upon the principal. However there will be the issue of frustration, demotivation because the staff will not be able to say anything to the principal as he is the one taking all the decisions. Decisions which are taken without the consultation of staff is regarded as a directive leadership style, (Muczyk and Reimann 2004, p.52).
In an academic establishment, this leadership style would be best when a task requires to be done quickly, and no involvement of staff participation. This type of leadership style should be adopted when the staff is new, lazy, inexperienced or under qualified.
184.108.40.206 Democratic Leadership
Democratic leader is the one who delegates tasks to followers, involving them in decision making, has a two way communication and takes the staff opinions and suggestions into consideration, (Le Roux et al. 2005, p.130 and Hicks et al. 2004, p.198). It is also a permissive style of leadership as it provides staff with a certain level of personal responsibility, (Allcorn 2004, p. 46). It helps in the development and independence of staff. It is also said that the democratic is more productive. Nevertheless, supervision of the staff is required by the principal from times to times as he has only delegated tasks but the responsibility remains with him. The principal encourages initiative on the part of the staff; he involves members in problem solving and keeps track of the goal progress.
220.127.116.11 Laissez faire Leadership
The laissez faire leadership is one believing that employees must be given their freedom, do not supervise them and let them do what they want. Moreover, is it believed that employees should be left alone to do their job as they know the best. This type of leader provides his employees with minimum information and resources, (SAGE Publications, 16 Feb, 2011).
Many processes get out of control due to this style. The laissez faire leadership leads to inefficiency and chaos. This style is appropriate where no one has a clue of what is actually the required performance. In our research, this can be applied in the case of teachers where they will have to introduce a new curriculum or syllabus. Furthermore, it is linked with the way of running a school, if there is a deficiency of well skilled, motivated and competent staff, it is the school that will bear the consequences as it will be poorly served. Within leadership literature the laissez-faire leadership style is the least effective style of leadership when comparing it with transformational and transactional leadership styles (Barnett, Marsh, Craven, 2005).
18.104.22.168 Transformational Leadership
In transformational leadership, the leader educates and motivates subordinates in the decision making process without the interacting with supervisors. A high level of self-efficacy is experienced by followers, (Barnett, Craven & Marsh, 2005). It is reported in the Leithwood’s research that transformational leaders follow three goals: helping staff solve problems effectively, helping staff collaboration and encouraging teachers’ improvement. Such practices are essential in conducting a school’s daily operations (Leithwood, 2003).Furthermore, transformational leadership is also defined as a process that brings about changes in individuals, an influence that causes followers to accomplish more than what is expected of them, (Northouse 2004,p.47).
It is also found that transformational leaders insist on a high level of commitment from educators and thus contributing towards school improvement, (Marks & Printy, 2003). Moreover, there is a need to focus on the delegation of power in order to make drastic changes in student achievement. In order for schools to reform and improve, there is a need such leadership.
Student learning gains are at the key aspect to this type of leadership. More professionalism and commitment are exhibited to the establishment by educators if leadership duties are shared, (Marks & Printy, 2003, Burke, 2009). Within a school, transformational leadership is welcomed but only as a limited strategy,(Barnett, Craven and Marsh 2005,p.45).
22.214.171.124 Soft Leadership: A new direction to Leadership
Soft leadership is leading through soft skills and people skills. It involves the blending of soft skills, hard skills, and leadership. It places emphasis on the signi’cance of precious human resources. It helps in managing the emotions, egos, and feelings of the people successfully. It focuses on the personality, attitude, and behaviour of the people, and calls for making others feel more important. It is an integrative, participative, relationship, and behavioural leadership model adopting tools such as persuasion, negotiation, appreciation, motivation, and collaboration to accomplish the tasks effectively. Succinctly, soft leadership can be de’ned as the process of setting goals, in’uencing people through persuasion, building strong teams, negotiating them with a win-win attitude, motivating them constantly, aligning their energies and efforts, and appreciating their contribution in achieving organizational goals and objectives with an emphasis on soft skills, (Frances Hesselbein Leadership Institute; VOL. 45 NO. 3 2013, pp. 143-149).
It minimizes attrition at the workplace as employees are able to balance their personal and professional life, since this style cares for people. Thus, for a school, it is almost perfect as handling students can get difficult at times and educators are stressed out. If a principal shows some caring attitude for the educators, the latters will feel good about it and they will feel their leader cares for them, thus, it motivates them to perform better and their good performance will in turn increase the performance of students as well.
Moreover, due to apprehensions people often resist change. But this style facilitates change successfully and smoothly. It is important for educators to adapt to changes made as each year the syllabus keeps on changing and there is a need to restructure and formulate the responsibilities and learn new things. Thus, with this particular style educators are more prompt to changes and be successful in educating students.
Employee motivation is one of the strategies of managers to enhance effective job performance among workers in organizations. Motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behaviour and performance, (Bandura, 2005; Deci, 2007). In contrast, motivation results when the person believes that engaging in the behaviour will result in some desired experience or outcome. Money is not the only motivator. There are other incentives which can also serve as motivators, (Greenberg and Baron 2000, p.61).
Teacher motivation has been the focus of numerous empirical investigations (Fox, 2004; Lortie, 2007; Sergiovanni, 2011). Teachers indicated that achievement; recognition and responsibility contributed most to their satisfaction and motivation. Motivation is classified into two parts namely: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation is performing an activity as the activity itself is interesting; there is willingness to do the task out of voluntary and own interest. Extrinsic motivation involving activities which are uninteresting and thus, it requires some extra activities which will make a person motivated (Roth et al., 2009, p.67; Ryan and Connell, 2006, p.89).
2.3.1 Factors of Motivation
Motivational factors focus primarily on the needs of individuals such as the physiological deficiencies that we feel a compulsion to reduce or eliminate, (Schermerhon et al 2005, p.87).