Agriculture

Metals play a vital role in the development of plants

Metals play a vital role in the development of plants. Other than the essential nutrients plants required a trace amount of metal ions for their proper growth and in performing a various function which occurs in the cell. Metals are essential for plant growth. Plants required a large number of metals as fundamental micronutrients for the normal growth and development of plants. These metals are also involved in various oxidation and reduction reactions, development signal transduction which is in turn essential to many cellular functions of plants. Iron copper-zinc and some other transition metals are essential nutrients for plants Frausto da Silva and Williams 2001 Clemens et al 2002 Morrissey and Guerinot 2009 Pilon 2011. Metal elements should be transported from the soil into the root after that distributed throughout the plants crossing both the cellular and organelles layer. Trace amount of metal particles are present in soil. Plants must utilize an efficient mechanism to aggregate these particles. Deficiency of the metals results in the low nutrient crop productivity and decrease the stress tolerance Akkermans et al 2016. It is considered that 33 of the proteins of a typical cell are metalloprotein Finkelstein 2009. Inside a cell metal, ions are transported by diffusion and various ion channels with the support of the different techniques, like transporter identification by comparing the sequence.

Yeast Mutant Complementation and various gene activities assistance in recognizing the various genes families and transporters which are involved in metal transport such as Zip, Family, Cu regulatory transporters. Metals transporters have been examined traditionally in great depth as models for understanding plant membrane transport. Iron is part of heam protein such as ferritin it acts as a cofactor for enzymes and involved in many biochemical processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. Although iron is an abundant metal but presents in limited foam due to its oxidized foam. Fe III is insoluble in neutral or basic PH. Iron deficient plants use different strategies to take up iron. For example, IRTI transporter plays an important role in the uptake of iron. It releases a reducing chelating agent that binds to the iron and helps in the uptake of iron. Members of the Arabidopsis NRAMP family have been shown to be involved in iron homeostasis Curie et al 2000. Thomine et al 2000 Zinc are required by the plants in response to the demand of plants Nouet C Motte P Hanikenne M 2011 Zn is involved in the various cellular process and the essential part of proteins which provide stability to the membrane, Maret. W Li Y 2009 Zn is a non redox element but plays an essential role in proteins.

Plants use different approaches to overcome the deficiency of Zn. Zinc is taken up the plants in the foam of divalent ions. Once Zinc is take-up by the plant it is neither oxidized and redox. The behavior of zinc in the cell depend upon the existence of a divalent cations. Recent studies have shown that different gene families of transporters are involved in the transport of divalent cation. For example, the ZIP family produces a Protein ZIP1 and ZIP2 that expressed in roots and transport the zinc from the soil into the plant. Manganese is essential for all organisms but required in a small amount Manganese also plays a virtual role in the photosynthesis process and in the detoxification of free radicals of oxygen. Plants use various proteins that helps in the transport of manganese from the root into the plant NRAMP family produce a gene that is involved in the transport of manganese to the plant NRAMP gene encodes a metal transporter which is involved in the transportation of the Manganese from the roots to the plants.

They are a monomeric protein having 11 Tran’s membrane domains Ehrnstorfer et al 2014. Cu is essential for the development of plant Cu is involved in many physiological processes that occur in plants such as photosynthesis respiration. It acts as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes such as laccase, plastocyanin and polyphenol oxidase at the cellular level in the signaling C M Pilon M 2009. Cu is essential for plants but when present in the excess amount it can cause serious damage to plants. The deficiency of a Cu affects the physiological process in plants. Many transporters are reported which are involved in the transport of Cu but most important is COPT transporter Curr, Opin, Chem, Biol 2002. Therefore human diet in numerous ranges of the world does exclude the basic metal supplement necessities, causing minor immunological reforms to death. Akkermans et al 2016 Efforts have been done all over the world to improve the efficiency of plants in uptake of metals L√≥pez Rayo et al 2015. Developing the crop varieties in which uptake of metals have been improved Eggert and von Wiren 2013. In this review, I will briefly describe the different metal transporters’ genes and their families which are involved in the transportation of metals to various parts of the plants from the soil How we can overcome the deficiency of micronutrients in the world.

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MandyFreel

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